Arabinoxylans are a non-starch polysaccharide found in cereal grain cell walls. Arabinoxylans have been found in all of the major cereal grains, including wheat, barley, oats, rye, rice, sorghum, corn, and millet. They are mostly found in the cell walls of the starchy endosperm and aleurone layer, as well as the bran and husk. Arabinoxylan (AX) is an essential prebiotic substance.
Prebiotics are a group of functional foods that help the health of the host by feeding the good bacteria in the digestive tract. They consist of dietary fibers that are digested and fermented by microbes in the colon following consumption. Human in vivo studies has revealed that consuming several species of arabinoxylans has a significant effect on gut microbes.
Arabinoxylans can be found in a variety of structures in cereal varieties. Differences in arabinoxylan structures influence their cleavage, degradation, and fermentation by gut bacteria. Still, this difference in structure makes it hard to compare and contrast studies of different arabinoxylans. However, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp. are common targets of prebiotics across all AX structures, and both are good for human health.
What Does Research say on arabinoxylans?
Existing research on arabinoxylans has predominantly concentrated on those produced from wheat. Since the structure of rice arabinoxylans is very different from that of wheat arabinoxylans, more research needs to be done on how rice arabinoxylans affect the gut microbiome. This review is a summary of what we know about how prebiotic AX affects gut flora and what that means for human health.
Not every arabinoxylan is identical. The number and structure of arabinoxylans in a particular tissue can change depending on the cereal. Arabinoxylans are made up of side chains that are linked to the xylan backbone by -(12) and/or -(13) bonds, while xyloses are usually just one type of substitution.
How arabinoxylans are obtained
Arabicinoxylans’ molecular structure is also dependent on the extraction method used. Arabinoxylans can be obtained using chemical, enzymatic, and physical processes. Depending on how the arabinoxylan was extracted, the amount of polymerization (which shows how long the chains are) and the amount of soluble arabinoxylan changed.
Like other dietary fibers, their ability to be used by the gut microbiome depends on their physical and chemical properties. Higher polymerization levels and concentrations of soluble fiber are associated with stronger bifidogenic effects.
Arabinoxylans can be used as a dietary supplement because they are good for gut health, blood sugar control, and immune health. Research shows that arabinoxylans, which are a type of dietary fiber, have good effects on the human body all along the gastrointestinal tract.
Strong prebiotic characteristics are possessed by arabinoxylans.
Arabinoxylans are strong prebiotics that specifically promote the growth of good bacteria in the colon, like Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides species.
This change in the microbiota is linked to good health results, such as better overall health, fewer stomach infections, and better mineral absorption. Also, when gut bacteria ferment prebiotics, they make short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are good for the body.
Some of these effects include getting rid of dangerous microorganisms, stopping colon cancer, and making it easier to handle glucose.
Arabinoxylans enhance glucose regulation and insulin sensitivity.
Arabinoxylans made from wheat may help people with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes better control their metabolism by raising their blood glucose and insulin levels.
Most of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that come from the gut microbiota breaking down arabinoxylans are butyrate, acetate, and propionate. Acetate and propionate can interact with a protein receptor in the colon called GPCR.
After binding, there is a rise in the secretion of two peptides (PYY and GLP-1). This results in decreased intestinal motility and decreased levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin. These processes are essential for improving glucose management.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) found that there is enough research to support the health claim that eating arabinoxylans made from cereal endosperm helps to lower the rise in blood sugar after a meal. Several other soluble fibers have also been linked to this health benefit; however, one of the benefits of arabinoxylans is that they are more palatable.
arabinoxylans improve immunological function
Arabinoxylans modulate the immune system. In particular, they may improve adaptive immunity, innate immunity, and the integrity of the intestinal barrier.
Adaptive immunity is one of them. Arabinoxylans may make flu shots work better, leading to fewer side effects, fewer infections of the respiratory tract, and a higher seroprevalence.
As previously stated, arabinoxylans may promote a favorable profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). This causes the immune system to make more cytokines, recruit more monocytes, and turn on regulatory T cells. This makes the immune system more alert and turns it into a stable condition after the elimination of intruders.
intestinal barrier integrity:
Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), which gives intestinal cells more energy and makes the mucus layer stronger. Arabinoxylans help tight junction proteins become more active, which protects the body from foreign invaders and boosts the immune system.
How may arabinoxylans be incorporated into your diet?
Wheat arabinoxylans are found naturally in cereals and many other foods made with wheat, but only in small amounts. But if you want to get more of these substances, you can also get dietary supplements and functional meals that are fortified. They are available in the form of capsules, powder blends, bars, and even fortified bread, pasta, and a range of other munchies.
Most of the time, 1 to 5 grams of arabinoxylans per day is enough to feel their prebiotic effect. In order to meet the EFSA’s glycemic management health claim, at least 8% arabinoxylan-rich fiber derived from wheat endosperm should be consumed per unit of accessible carbohydrates.
Most people think that wheat arabinoxylans are safe and well tolerated by the gut, which means that they don’t cause stomach upset.
We know that short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are very good for gut health because they stimulate the growth of anti-inflammatory bacteria, inhibit the growth of inflammatory microbes, and repair the intestinal barrier to reverse leaky gut. The GI specialist talks about a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with 40 healthy people that looked at arabinoxylans.
The study showed that people who ate bread with arabinoxylans had higher levels of butyrate and more anti-inflammatory microorganisms. People who ate this improved bread didn’t have any stomach problems, which is also very impressive.
Keep in mind that fiber is your friend, and there are many healthy (and tasty!) ways to add it to your diet. The fact that “49 out of 50 people throughout the population don’t eat enough whole grains” shows how important it is to eat more whole grains and, by extension, more arabinoxylans. Still, most of us could benefit from eating more fiber overall, since “19 out of 20 people around the world don’t eat enough fiber.
Therefor consuming Arabinoxylans through wheat or any other cereal that you consume is of utmost importsance nad necessary in your diet. We should strive to consume a wide variety of plant foods in order to gain the benefits of a fiber-rich, prebiotic-rich diet. Your stomach and your overall health will thank you in due time for proving how beneficial fiber can be.
Disclaimer: This information is for educational purposes only, and no medical advice should be inferred from it. Before changing your diet or adding supplements, please talk to your doctor.
The author’s views are his or her own. The facts and opinions in the article have been taken from various articles and commentaries available in the online media and Eastside Writers does not take any responsibility or obligation for them.
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